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What is Feedback

Handbook of Research on Learning in Language Classrooms Through ICT-Based Digital Technology
Feedback is the information given to students about their academic work, shows their strengths and weaknesses, enables them to work on their weaknesses, and helps them enhance their learning.
Published in Chapter:
Giving Feedback Online on EFL/ESL Student Writing Through Talk and Comment: A Review
Ahmet Erdost Yastibaş (Gazi University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-6682-7.ch003
Abstract
Teaching writing requires English as a foreign language (EFL)/English as a second language (ESL) students to use their knowledge of English to produce a piece of language through which they can communicate their ideas, feelings, and beliefs. Giving feedback on EFL/ESL students' writing plays a critical role in teaching writing because feedback enables students to see their strengths and weaknesses and improve their writing by working on their weaknesses. Such feedback can be given face-to-face or online. Different programs such as Word and Google Docs can be used in giving online feedback. One of these methods is Talk and Comment. This study aimed to review this technology and indicate how it can be used to provide feedback on EFL/ESL students' writing. Therefore, this technology was reviewed in two stages: First, its features were described. Second, it was evaluated critically. Thus, its use to give feedback on EFL/ESL students' writing was explained step by step in this study.
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Feedback and Feedforward Dynamics: Nexus of Organizational Learning and Leadership Self-Efficacy
Flows of learning that occur between levels of learning, known as feedback - from the organization to groups and individuals; tension in this flow of learning, known as exploitation, is concerned with feedback and includes issues of selection, refinement, efficiency as well as execution with vested interest in short term benefits. Moreover, exploration learning, at the individual level, is associated with developing and absorbing.
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Peer Review in Online Professional Communities to Support Elementary Disciplinary Literacy Planning
The suggestions, comments, and questions provided to improve a person’s performance or thinking.
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Human Resource Management in Agile Scrum Processes
Communicating to an employee how a stakeholder views their work behavior.
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Planning and Control and the Use of Information Technology in Mental Health Care Organizations
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Active Learning Strategies in the Flipped Classroom Approach
Is information given to the learner about her/his performance relative to learning goals or outcomes.
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How to Help Students Excel in Reviews of the Literature
A description (either verbally or in writing) about reactions to a person’s performance.
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Basic Cellular Neural Networks Image Processing
The signal that is looped back to control a system within itself. When the output of the system is fed back as a part of the system input, it is called a feedback loop. A simple electronic device which is based on feedback is the electronic oscillator. The Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is an example of complex feedback system.
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Learning Analytics: A Lever for Professional Development of Teachers?
Is defined as “[…] information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding” ( Hattie & Timperley, 2007 ) or as “[…] information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner’s thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learning” ( Shute, 2008 ). Obviously, the main purpose of feedback is to enable its beneficiaries to see where they stand in relation to heterogeneous (what is expected from them) or endogenous (what they expect of themselves) expectations ( Sclater, 2017 ).
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The Peril and Promise of Pre-Tests in Informal Massive Open Online Courses
Any information about a performance that learners can use to improve performance or learning. Feedback might come from a teacher, a peer, the learner observing the results of his or her efforts, or the task itself. It may include information on where the learner is, where the learner is going, or what steps should be taken and strategies employed to get there.
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Preparing the Next Generation of Physician Leaders: Teaching Management Skills to Medical Students and Residents
A process in which information about the past or the present influences the same phenomenon in the present or future.
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Performance-Driven Project Management in Cyprus
There are three kinds of feedback, to the individual or work team. Catchwords for the first two are ‘doing things right,’ and ‘doing the right things’. Efficiency and effectiveness. The third feedback is on the team member’s communications and respect for the others on the team. This can radically affect the readiness for the next project/assignment.
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PAUSE: Praise
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Teaching Collaboration Skills to Foster Social-Emotional Learning
Clear individual or group commentary about the process or product to students from a teacher or among students in an educational setting.
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Application of System Dynamics in a Gasoline Service Station: Decision Making Using Graphical Interface
it is the process that allows to have information of one variable on another or others, during the simulation and not at the end, this allows to adjust on the model to modify, if it were the case, possible decisions that do not affect the desired result by the organization.
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Classroom Interaction in Language Teacher Education: Analysis of Learners' Reactions to Questions and Feedback
Information about reactions to a product or a person's performance of a task, that is used as a basis for improvement.
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Navigating 21st Century Multimodal Textual Environments: A Case Study of Digital Literacy
A process in which advice is provided or fed-back to modify future actions or behaviour of a learner.
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Examining Feedback Practices in WIL Subjects: A Case Study
Information students receive to improve future work.
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FeedForward With Screencasts
Information provided by an agent (usually, a professor) regarding aspects of one’s performance or comprehension.
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Active Learning and Its Implementation for Teaching
The process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output. Often this is done intentionally, in order to control the dynamic behavior of the system
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Optimizing Supply Chains Through System Dynamics Modelling and Simulation: Lessons From the Navy
When the effect of a causal impact comes back to influence the original cause of that effect.
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Can Software Grade My Students' Papers?: Do I Want It To?
Occurs when outputs in a system are routed back to the original source with evaluative observations to improve the output.
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Assessment for an Unprecedented Education
An answer to a message influenced by various factors as the multiplicity of social constructs, meanings, knowledge, actions, behaviors, attitudes, curriculum, etc. in diverse social and interactional situations. The feedbacks are various: correctives, positives, negatives, on performance, etc.
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Peer Assessment for Development of Preservice Teachers
Written and/or oral input on the merits of a performance provided by an observer (evaluator) to a person who performed a task.
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Systems and Control Theory for Medical Systems Biology
The technique of monitoring information from one part of a system and using it to modify a system element at some point prior to the monitoring point. If the monitored information is used to add to the system element it is positive feedback , if it is used to subtract from the system element it is negative feedback.
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Do Your Classes Click?: Interactive Remotes Foster Effective Pedagogy
The verbal or written information students receive about their performance for the purpose of improving learning.
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User Experience Measurement: Recent Practice of E-Businesses
Remarks made by a user as a reaction or as an opinion to offer useful information on how to improve a product or service.
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Intentional Connection: Learning-Based Course Design
A process in which information provides opportunity for adjustment. Feedback is a key part of the learning process for students as they master course outcomes and for faculty as they seek to improve their course design.
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Teacher-Student Interaction Within the Context of Online Teaching and Learning
Feedback refers to the teacher informing the student about the student's behavior or performance or responding to the student's questions/requests.
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Discipline-Specific Writing Within a Pedagogy of Caring
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Communication: The Role of the Johari Window on Effective Leadership Communication in Multinational Corporations
the process that allows persons transmitting information to correct and adjust messages to adapt to the receiver.
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The Impact of Online Feedback Practice on Pre-Service English Teachers During the Pandemic
Information or expressions of opinion given about a student's performance or something he has produced that can tell him how successful he has been.
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System Dynamics Based Technology for Decision Support
It is a process whereby an input variable is fed back by the output variable. For example, an increased (or decreased) customer base leads to an increase (or decrease) in sales from word of mouth which then is fed back to the customer base, increasingly (or decreasingly).
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Artificial Intelligence in Education as a Means to Personalize Learning
Process of informing a person during their learning about how they are doing a certain activity through the identification of their strengths and weaknesses.
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Increasing Student Engagement in Remote Learning Using Self-Assessment
Information about one’s performance on a task which h can be used to improve said performance.
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Enhancing Students' Critical Thinking through Portfolios: Portfolio Content and Process of Use
Information that results from formal or informal assessment and that is used by teachers and students to enhance teaching and learning.
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Using Lean Method in English Language Classes
A response to a particular process or activity.
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Gamification Tools to Facilitate Student Learning Engagement in Higher Education: A Burden or Blessing?
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Organizational Implications of Managing the HRIS Employee Experience
The return of a portion of the output of a process or system to the input, especially when used to maintain performance or to control a system or process.
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Formative Assessment and Feedback in Higher Education: Preparing Spanish Academics to Teach in a Digital World
The information given to a learner, typically by a teacher or mentor, that provides them with insight into their performance or understanding of a task or subject matter.
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Exploring the Assessment Experiences of Eight Teenage Maltese Boys
The information provided by the teacher or a peer on a set of success criteria that empowers the student with the knowledge on what has been done well, what still needs to be done and how.
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PAUSE: Understandable and Specific - The Golden Slice Part 2
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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PedsAcademy®: Using an Alternative Clinical Model to Foster Teacher Candidate Development and Identity
Information given to the learner about the learner's performance relative to learning goals or outcomes.
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Transactional Distance and the Capacity Triangle of Adult Teaching and Learning
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Teaching for Diversity Online: A Teacher Educator's Perspective
An important tool in online education, feedback allows the instructor to engage the student in deepening their learning by prompting further answers, posing thought-provoking questions, and evaluating the student’s progress towards the course goals.
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An Integral Theory Approach to the Feedback System in Supervising Doctoral Students in the Nordic Higher Education Context
Defined in this study in its broadest sense of a dialogic communication process, although it is analyzed from the niche field of Nordic pedagogy doctoral thesis supervision.
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Effective Physical Therapy Education Through Increased Student Engagement
Information related to a product or outcome used as a basis for improvement.
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ChatGPT and the Education System: Challenges and Risks in Teaching Learning Systems
The information, opinions, or responses provided by individuals, often in response to a particular action, process, or output.
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Self-Normalizing Distance Learning Tools
Process of sharing concerns with the intention of improving performance.
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Optimizing Learner-Centered Feedback for Learning With “Hard Problems”
Information provided to learners in response to their work and actions.
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Addressing Discrepancies in Faculty and Student Perceptions of the Quality and Rigor of Online Courses
The process of a student receiving written commentary on a specific assignment or activity in an online course.
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Optimizing Learning Through Activities and Assessments: A TPACK-Based Online Course Design
The description (verbally or in writing) about reactions to a student’s performance.
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The Need, Use, and Future of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments in Classroom Practice
The process or product of providing information (usually qualitative) to students based on their performance with the goal to improve future performance.
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Integrating Organizational Values With Workplace Performance
Information delivered to the performer after the performance has taken place.
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PAUSE: Encouraging
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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“Smart City”: The Concept of Resolving the Contradiction Between Production and Urban Life
Occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.
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Testing Assessments of Integrated Experiential Learning
Insights, critiques, or curiosities provided to learners about a prototype, idea, process, or artifact of learning for iteration or improvement purposes.
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Using Video Gameplay to Measure Achievement for Students with Disabilities: A New Perspective to Grading and Achievement Reporting
Detailed description and information provided to an individual on their performances during or after a learning task.
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The Impact of Mobile Learning via Touch-Screen Tablets in Emergent Literacy Development
A process in which learners make sense of information about their performance and use it to enhance the quality of their work or learning strategies.
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Desire: Life as a Drama Based Game or the Thermodynamics of Everything
Where the output of a certain biological or logical function is fed back either in its original state or as an adjustment to one of the signals at the input side, thus forming a connecting loop between output and input. There are two types: 1) Positive feedback is where the output signal or its abstracted adjustment signal is such that it will enhance the tendency of the input signal, leading to divergence at the output. The output signal will go towards either the upper or lower limits of the system in which the function takes place. 2) Negative feedback is where the output signal or its derived adjustment signal gets inverted (hence the name negative feedback) this will lead to convergence at the output. The output signal will go towards a median value and will thus have a balancing, equilibrium seeking effect.
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The Making of Adult Learners through Project-Based Learning
It refers to a constructive response given based on the completion of a task to a learner for improvement purpose.
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Transform Learning With EdTech in the Elementary Classroom
An instructor’s response to students on an assignment or assessment.
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Responding to Critical Feedback by Challenging Pessimistic Attributions: A Cognitive Tool for the Dissertation Journey
Feedback is an important component of learning. Feedback can occur through written or verbal interactions with peers or with teachers.
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Creativity and Digital Games: A Study of Developing Creativity Through Digital Games
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Using Automated Feedback to Improve Writing Quality: Opportunities and Challenges
Information provided to a learner regarding specific aspects of his/her task performance or conceptual understanding.
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The Role of Feedback in Software Process Assessment
Information or individual's responses on difference between actual level and proposed level of a system parameter.
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Professional and Career Development of Medical Students
Discussing observations and recommendations with a learner with the goal to either improve specific behaviors or reinforce specific good behaviors.
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Asynchronous Online Peer Written Corrective Feedback: Effects and Affects
Feedback refers to comments or other information that learners receive concerning their success on learning tasks or tests, either from the teacher or other persons (Richards & Schmidt, 2010 AU78: The in-text citation "Richards & Schmidt, 2010" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , p. 217).
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Innovation, Critical Pedagogy, and Appreciative Feedback: A Model for Practitioners
The giving of information based on assessment of a learner’s display of skill or knowledge.
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Preparing Book Proposals for Scholarly Publishers
Comments provided by external reviewers, usually senior scholars in the field, on the proposal’s academic credibility.
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eCoaching to Support Internship and Induction
Information provided by a coach related to a specific goal for the purposes of filling a gap “between what is understood and what is aimed to be understood” ( Hattie, 2009 , p.174).
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Using Technology to Teach Foundational Writing Skills in Early Elementary Grades
The methods of giving students feedback on their writing to help them develop their skills.
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PAUSE: The Study
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Scholarly Publications: Proposing and Revising Book Proposals
Comments provided by external reviewers, usually senior scholars in the field, on the proposal’s academic credibility.
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Strategies for Efficient, Meaningful, and Inclusive Online Learning Environments: It's About Time
Communication between students or between student and professor focused on evidence of demonstrating learner outcomes. Typically regarded as significant for motivating student engagement and informing development of student knowledge and skills before summative performance.
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Managing Student Expectations: Using Online Quizzes in University Subjects
A response to the answers given in the quizzes. Designed to support and encourage student learning. Provides links to resources, identifies problems and strengths and where needed provides realistic assessment of the students’ performance.
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Teaching All Students to Write During a Pandemic: Best Practices for Writing Instruction
The methods of giving students feedback on their writing to help them develop their skills.
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Moving In-Frame: Creativity Through Reflection Within Digital Spaces
These are constructive comments and corrections provided to aid learning and development.
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Applying Gamification to Enhance the Universal Design for Learning Framework
Communication between students or between student and professor focused on evidence of demonstrating learner outcomes.
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PAUSE: Putting It All Together
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Becoming an Eclectic Instructor
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Negotiation of Form Among the Displaced: Developing a Corrective Feedback Paradigm for Refugees
Akin to error correction, feedback specifically refers to the teacher’s role in the error correction process.
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Effective Characteristics of Learning Multimedia
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Learning-Centered Teacher Evaluation in Wisconsin
Information provided, typically by another person or people, about performance based on observable evidence.
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Use of a Metacognitive Tool to Facilitate Teacher Reflection in an Online Graduate Literacy Course
The process through which colleagues and instructors provide constructive response in the form of suggestion, critique, or comment on completed or shared written, audio, and video assignments.
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Using the Technology Integration Planning Cycle to Select Digital Tools for Virtual Instruction
A part of the assessment process that involves teachers communicating with students about their progress towards specific instructional goals and is often included as a possible Contribution to Instruction of a digital tool and part of the Instruction element of the TIPC.
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PAUSE: Applicable - The Golden Slice Part 1
Summary information provided to students to help them understand their areas of strengths and opportunity with the skills and subskills needed to complete assignments or to be successful in the online university.
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Effective Feedback in Online Learning
A two way communication that promotes learning, and aids in improvement.
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Electronic Democracy and Citizen Influence in Government
Actions taken by authorities to ascertain information about the state of the system or regulate and respond to demands.
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Dynamic Links and Evolutionary History in Simulated Gene Regulatory Networks
the return to the input of a part of the output of a system, or process (as in an automatic control device that provides self-corrective action)
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Drawing as an Opportunity to Assess Meaningful Learning in College Students
The process of monitoring learning that allows both the student and the teacher to realize the progress or limitations in the learning process of students in order to propose improvements for the benefit of teaching and learning itself.
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Gamification: A Learning Technique for the Dynamization of the Teaching of Social Sciences
Key element of the teaching and learning process, which provides the student with information about what he has done well or not, what he can improve and how to do it.
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Ergonomic Design of a Driver Training Simulator for Rural India
The output from the machine to the user which makes the user at ease with the machine he is operating at.
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Analysis and Evaluation of the Connector Website
Website “currency” that builds or detracts reputation for users or specific content. Within a Website’s feedback system, for example, a user may give positive or negative point(s) to another user or that user’s posted content based on some interaction.
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The Lived Experiences of Authentic Leaders: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Defining Experiences that Informed Their Development
The process of one person reacting to another person’s behavior, performance, or actions and verbalizing the reaction.
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Engaging Students' Learning in the Built Environment Through Active Learning
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Engaging Faculty as a Strategic Choice in Assessment
A process in which the results of an assessment process are shared with those who provided the assessment information in the first place.
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