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What is Culture

Handbook of Research on Digital Communications, Internet of Things, and the Future of Cultural Tourism
It is the whole of material and spiritual values specific to a society.
Published in Chapter:
Social Media and Cultural Tourism
Murat Koçyiğit (Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey) and Büşra Küçükcivil (Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8528-3.ch020
Abstract
The development of digital communication technologies and the increase in the use of digital platforms by individuals have increased the tendency towards touristic activities. Cultural tourism, which is carried out for certain purposes within the diversity of tourism, is one of the rising tourism activities of recent times. In this context, tourism management benefits from social media platforms as a tool in marketing their products and services related to cultural tourism. Social media platforms are important here for two aspects. The first of these is the use of social media by tourism management in the marketing of products and services by organizing individual and mass cultural tours and communicating with target audiences. The second is that individuals benefit from social media platforms in participating in cultural tourism and decision making. In this direction, it is important to evaluate conceptually the relationship between social media platforms, one of the most important digital communication technologies, and cultural tourism.
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Rationale and Risk Considerations: Establishing Transnational Higher Education Provisions or International Branch Campuses Abroad
The set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual, and emotional features of a society or a social group. Culture encompasses art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions, behaviours, and beliefs.
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Parawork
An ever-emerging social system of values, beliefs, practices, discourses, and constructed knowledge.
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The Roles of Organizational Justice, Social Justice, and Organizational Culture in Global Higher Education
A pattern of responses discovered, developed, or invented during the group's history of handling problems which arise from interactions among its members, and between them and their environment.
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E-Learning Adaptability and Social Responsibility
The common values and paradigms that individuals share with each other across the various communities and contexts they encounter in the workplace.
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Knowledge Facilitator vs. Knowledge Dictator in Today's Organizations
The ideas, activities (e.g., art, foods, businesses), and ways of behaving that are special to a country, people, or region. In this article, it is also used to refer to ways of behaving that are special to an organization.
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Occupational Culture and Socialization in IS
The shared philosophies, ideologies, values, assumptions, beliefs, expectations, attitudes, and norms that people have in common with others in a community.
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Globalization and Media's Impact on Cross Cultural Communication: Managing Organizational Change
The body of knowledge of and manners acquired by an individual; the shared customs, values, and beliefs which characterize a given social group, and which characterize a given social group, and passed down from generation to generation.
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Autism and Parenting in Different Cultures: Being the Mother of a Child With Autism in a Cultural Context
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Utilizing Learner Knowledge in Cross-Culture Management Education: Beneath the Visible Teaching Pyramid
A set of discernible assumptions, attitudes, conceptualizations, and values possessed by members of a specific group that is considered important enough to be actively transmitted to the next generation through socialization and communication involving symbols, narratives, stories, and a recalled past.
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Advancing Elementary-Level Students' Linguistic/Cultural Proficiencies Through Children's Literature
A system of common behaviors, beliefs, history, language, traditions, etc. shared across members of a given community.
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Implementing and Evaluating Culturally Responsive Teaching for Historical Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Through Study Abroad Programs: Effective Culturally Responsive Teaching Strategies Suitable for HBCUs
The way things are done and transferred to following generations. It can be a culture of race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, gender identity, sexual orientation, or social class identification.
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Knowledge Sharing in an Organisation: A Practitioner Approach
The entrenched behaviour and norms of a social group or context.
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Social Issues and Web 2.0: A Closer Look at Culture in E-Learning
Consists of different value preferences that influence communication interaction and how people create meaning.
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Moving From Ideation to Prototyping: Developing a Learning-Centered Co-Curriculum
Atmosphere and environment created by faculty, staff, and students that demonstrates norms and values of an organization.
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Multiculturalism in the Workplace: Leading With Emotional Intelligence at Every Level
The manner in which people are socialized into an existing way of being; how new people are taught to function in an organization.
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The Challenges and Responsibilities of White Women in Leadership: Strategies for Interrogating Whiteness in Higher Education
The shared behaviors, values, and practices of a social group. It involves the meaning attached to and the complexities that govern social interactions.
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Organizational-Cultural Elements for Improved Workplace Performance of Disabled Individuals
Culture is defined as the ideas, customs, and social behavior of a particular people or society.
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Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Africa: A Zambian Perspective
Beliefs or values embraced by a particular group of people.
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The Challenge of Assessing Intercultural Competence: A Review of Existing Approaches
It is a very complex and traditionally hard to define construct. It defies a single all-purpose definition; it can be described best by taking consensus of the previous decades’ findings. According to an extensive analysis done in 2009 by Helen Spencer-Oatey and Peter Franklin, Culture is manifested through different types of regularities, some of which are more explicit than others, Culture is associated with social groups, but no two individuals within a group share exactly the same cultural characteristics, culture affects people’s behaviour and interpretations of behaviour, and culture is acquired and/or constructed through interaction with others. ( Spencer-Oatey, & Franklin, 2009 ).
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Virtual Political Office Where Gender and Culture Meet
This refers to the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors that are shared by a group or people but that differ for every individual and that are communicated from one generation to another. Culture, like gender, affects virtually every aspects of life. A culture consists of structures and practices that uphold a particular social order by legitimizing certain values, expectations, meanings, and patterns of behavior. To explore this supposition, it is helpful to consider how culture creates and sustains more basic values, democracy, and then how culture upholds the gender practices ( Wood, 2003 , p.28).
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A Rebellion Against the Metallization of the Female Body: “Dove Beyond Figures”
Culture is the set of moral and material values that makes a society different from other societies, that continues from the past by changes, that ensures order in the society which it has provides an identity and a sense of solidarity and unity.
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Bank vs. Bond Finance: A Cultural View of Corporate Debt Financing
A complex entity of cognitions, shared by the members of a social group. Basically determined by values, which are understood to direct individual behavior.
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A Culture of Care: A Critical Component of Equity in Action
The pattern of thought, belief, behavior, practices, and norms of a group of people or organization.
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National and Organizational Culture and Its Impacts on the Negotiations Between United States and Mexico in the Case of USMC-TEMEC
Set of values, traditions, customs, rituals, artifacts, knowledge, ideas, etc., that characterize a people, a social class, a time, etc.
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Perspectives on Mediated L2 Learning during Study Abroad: Identity, Motivation, and Learning Strategies
A complex way of life shared and practiced by a particular group of people, such as languages, arts, beliefs, values, behaviors and symbols. It is a changeable and fluid concept.
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Fourth World Theory and Methods of Inquiry
The dynamic and evolving relationship between a people, the land and the cosmos.
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Food Tour of India
The characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything from language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music, and art.
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Cultivating the Mindset for Change
According to Duckworth (2016) , “Culture is shared norms and values of a group of people.”
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Future of Work Places: A Hybrid Approach
It refers to the behaviour that needs to be cultivated among people for the benefit of the organisation they belong to, which is generally acquired through learning or experience and transmitted to others through social learning.
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Impediments for Knowledge Sharing in Professional Service Firms
Covers the pattern of basic assumptions accepted and used about behaviors, norms, and values within an organization.
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Web 2.0 and Idiosyncrasy of Cultural Heritage: A Perspective from Indonesia
The everyday system, mechanism, or pattern, which is established or constructed by people in the term of the existence of the self in the world.
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National Culture, Societal Values, and Type of Economy: Are They Relevant to Explain Entrepreneurial Activity?
Is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others and causes them to display more or less the same behavior in similar situations.
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Effect of Mobile Phone SMS on M-Health: An Analysis of Consumer Perceptions
Culture, in this article, is defined as overall traits of any society or nations which can distinctly identify their characteristics to develop a unique identity.
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Governmental and Cultural Factors in Broadband Adoption
Patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. Different definitions of “culture” reflect different theoretical bases for understanding, or criteria for evaluating, human activity. Consists of values, norms, institutions, and artifacts passed on from generation to generation by learning.
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Intercultural Communication
The collective values, norms, attitudes, traditions, beliefs, ways of doing things, shared by a group of people.
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Transforming Educator Practice Through a Culturally Responsive and Sustaining Pedagogies Rubric: Co-Construction, Implementation, and Reflection
A hybrid, fluid, and complex constellation of intersecting and changing elements of one’s identity including, but not limited to, race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, ability, language, religion, and community membership.
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Culturally Responsive Program Evaluations
The collection of multidimensional and intersectional identities.
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Leading Digital Transformation in Higher Education: A Toolkit for Technology Leaders
The shared identity of an organization that is both fluid and enduring. Identity is influenced by both the internal and external environment as well as outliers, norms, values, and structures.
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Gender Characteristics: Implication for Cross-Cultural Online Learning
The characteristics, beliefs, knowledge, customs, arts, religious, social habits, language, etc. of and shared by a particular group of people.
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Social Impacts of Mobile Phones on the Life of the Chinese People
People’s values, norms, beliefs, social activities, and material life.
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Indigenous African Knowledge System (IAKS) Ethos: Prospects for a Post-Colonial Curriculum
A set of values that are have been in practiced for a long time in a particular community and viewed as form part and parcel of identity of such community.
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Leading Ethically in a Culturally Diverse Global Environment
Shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant events that result from common experiences of members of collectives and are transmitted across age generations.
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Security of Web Servers and Web Services
Culture can be defined as a distinct set of beliefs, values, traditions, and behaviors that exists in a society.
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Decolonial, Feminist, and Antiracist Pedagogies: Opening Paths Toward Diversity Through Teacher Training
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Media as a Threat and Subordinate of Cultural Heritage in Zimbabwe
Attributes and familiarity of a particular group of people, encircling language, religious conviction, marriage, communal routines, songs, arts, and a million other things.
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Cultivating Cultural  and Global Competence Through Collaboration With Diverse Groups of People
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The Handheld Hybrid
Culture is a social construction of values and power relations—used in this study to discuss the power involved in computer literacy for speakers of English as a second language.
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An Indigenous Perspective on Technology Education
The ideas, customs, social behaviour, technology, beliefs, etc. of a particular or society.
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Innovation Applied to Community Tourism: Bibliometric Analysis
The identity of a civilization, a nation, a society. Their values, tradition, heritage, and ways.
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Non-Governmental Organisations and Culturally-Sensitive Gender Programming: Considerations in Rural Zimbabwe
The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.
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Total Tourist Experience: From Heritage and Historical Significance of Places to New Directions for Post-Pandemic Tourism
The habitats, traditions, and beliefs of a country or group of people and, thus, we can consider that there is a tourist culture.
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Culturally Competent Practices and Implications for Special Education Leaders
The attitudes, beliefs, values, and customs that distinguish a particular group.
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Understanding Plagiarism Behavior through Criterion Studies: Predictors of Actual Plagiarism
Socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.
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PBIS in Schools: A Proactive Approach to Creating an Equitable School Culture
The way a particular group of people interacts daily, their values, their traditions, their norms, and their perspective of world values.
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Creating Cultural Analogues in Virtual Communities through Branding
The organizing principles of a social group for defining concepts and relationships in an environment.
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Multimedia as a Cross-Channel for Cultures and Languages
The ideals, values, symbols and behaviors of human societies that create a distinctive identification.
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Understanding and Using Virtual Ethnography in Virtual Environments
The sum of a social group’s observable patterns of behavior, customs, and way of life.
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Increasing Virtual Offences Through Cyberbullying in Developing Countries: Catalytic Factors Leading to Virtual Offences
The ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people (e.g., workers in an organization) or society.
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Adapting Collective Tendencies in Narrative Advertising
A set of distinguishable patterns of human behavior that is built through social learning.
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Inclusive Pedagogical Practices in Online Courses
The norms, values, beliefs, languages, and artifacts of a particular group of people.
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Material Use in Social Studies Education: Cultural Fairs
It is the sum of the national identity values that the nations carry with them from past to present that differentiate them from other nations, and foster them to have a unique structure.
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Using Postmodernism to Effectively Teach in Diverse Settings
Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e., historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; cultural systems may on the one hand be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action.
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Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Learning
Social system that provides a framework for shared expectations and values, and accepted ways which people live and operate in a shared context with others.
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Cultural Communications of Mainland United States-Based Organizations and Their Hawaiian Workforces: A Case Study of Their Unique Nature
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Literacy and Early Childhood: A Culturally Responsive Program for Mexican Mothers
Values, beliefs, traditions, customs, language shared within a group and intergenerational.
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Rethinking ICTs and E-Health: A Focus on Issues and Challenges
Represents different value preferences that influence communication interaction and how people create meaning.
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Looking at Special Education From Both Sides Now: Family Members Who Are Also Professionals on IEP Teams
A fluid and context-dependent set of values, norms, and beliefs of an individual or group that may or may not be connected with their languages, country of origin, religion, or other identities.
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Enhancing E-Collaboration Through Culturally Appropriate User Interfaces
Patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting learned throughout a lifetime, and applicable to groups of people often from the same nation state.
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Leading Successful Novice Teachers
The written and unwritten expectations that an organization of people agree to follow.
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Cultures and Self-Directed Learning
Defined as the beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time.
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Contemporary Leadership Development in Kazakhstan
The shared attitudes, beliefs, practices and values that characterize a group.
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“Seven Cloaks on Campus”: The Autoethnographic Account of a Female Professor in UK Higher Education
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Indigenous Knowledge Intelligence and African Development
The knowledge, beliefs, customs, morals, traditions and habits of African people. It defines the people’s heritage and helps in personal and national development.
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Embedded in a Culture
A shared set of beliefs, values, and patterns of behavior learned and taught by socialization. It serves as a guidance for the members of the culture about what is right and wrong, what deeds and interactions shall or shall not be appreciated or punished.
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National Culture and the Social Relations of Anywhere Working
Culture is the characteristics and knowledge of a group of people or society, which encompasses language, customs and the spiritual, material, intellectual, and emotional elements of everyday life.
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Building a Culture of Integrity
A pattern of shared assumptions learned by a group as it has solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration that has worked well enough to be considered valid and is taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.
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The Misappropriation of Organizational Power and Control: Managerial Bullying in the Workplace
A set of discernible assumptions, attitudes, conceptualizations, and values possessed by members of a specific group that is transmitted through socialization and communication involving key symbols, narratives and stories, and a recalled past.
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Play Work and Play Therapy
A way in which a group of people live in a particular community.
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Global Leadership Training and Technology
the shared attitudes, beliefs, practices and values that characterize a group.
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Personal Values and Proclaimed Values of the Education System: Results of Empirical Research in the Case of Croatia
The shared and learned psychological patterns and social interactions related to understanding and reacting to environmental stimuli.
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Strategic Management from Within
The sum of attitudes, customs, and beliefs that distinguishes one group of people from another.
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Visual Cultural Arts as a Gateway to Digital Literacy
The shared customs, expressions, institutions, attitudes, and values that characterize a group of people.
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Crisis Management for School Leaders: The Role of a Resilient School Climate
The shared values, beliefs, and norms contributing to the climate of an organization; including underlying assumptions held by members of an organization, and values.
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Visual Literacy and Visual Rhetoric: Images of Ideology Between the Seen and the Unseen in Advertising
The set of material or immaterial aspects that define a way of life (values, customs, history, traditions, rituals, beliefs, symbols and languages, instruments and consumer goods, laws, codes and norms, social activities and practices, and institutions).
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Cultivating Cultural Competence and Meaningful Bonds in the Virtual Classroom Using a Narrative Approach
Culture is a holistic, learned, and relative system that shapes behavior, identity, and group cohesion. It is acquired from one generation to the next and affects individuals’ perception and organization of their lives while adapting to change. Similar to an iceberg, culture has visible and hidden aspects, including core values and beliefs that are less prone to change (Department of Education, University of Oxford, n.d. AU65: The in-text citation "University of Oxford, n.d." is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).
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Replacing the “Melting Pot” With a “Colorful Mixed Salad” in the Language Classroom
The unique way of life of a group of people which encompasses religion, language, behavior, communication style, food, music, and art.
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Virtual Learning Environments for Culture and Intercultural Competence
The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes members of one group or category of people from another.
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Research on Cultural Factors in Global E-Learning
The cumulative knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, norms, and so forth, of a group of people living in a particular environment.
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Cultural Issues in Adult Education
A culture is defined as a group or community that shares common experiences that shape the way they understand the world.
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Developing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Language, Cultural Proficiency, and Educational Resilience
Culture shapes how people live, interact, and interpret the world around them as well as what people value.
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How to Foster Equality in the Language Classroom
The unique way of life of a group of people which encompasses religion, language, behavior, communication style, food, music, and art.
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Preparing Teacher Candidates for Diverse Classrooms: The Role of Teacher Preparation Programs
The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population.
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Citizenship Education Courses in Primary Schools in Modern Turkey (1920s-1950s)
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Impacts of Culture and Cultural Differences on Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding in Multicultural Societies
The total way of life of members of a society, which includes values, norms, habits, ideas experience etc., that are learned, shared and transmitted from through generations.
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When Is It a Good Fit to Apply the Scrum Approach to Project Management
Refers to the entire way of life for a group of people. It consists of the values, beliefs, and norms, which influence the behavior of the group.
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Importance of ICT Advancement and Culture of Adaptation in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry for Developing Countries
Culture is a term that refers to the characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, and includes language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music, and the arts.
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A Case Study on Cross-Cultural Differences: A Failure Story
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The Relationship between Transformational Leadership Characteristics and Multicultural Education Practices in Teacher Educators
A body of people who experience the same races, ethnicities, origins, experiences, traditions, values, and orientations.
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Digital Inclusion: From Connectivity to the Development of Information Culture
The term culture has a literal, etymological acceptation, that makes a reference directly to the farming or cultivating, to the growth of land, and another extensive meaning that alludes to the growth of the qualities and skills of the human being. This is the metaphorical sense that corresponds to the training or education. In relation to this meaning a well-bred person will be therefore well informed (or educated).
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The Role of Culturally Responsive Teacher to Ensure Social Justice in Education
It is a way of life formed by the learned behaviors shared among the members of a society and passed on to the next generations.
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Instrumental and Social Influences on Adoption of Collaborative Technologies in Global Virtual Teams
The collective programming of the mind that builds on shared norms and values (adapted from Hofstede, 1980).
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Communication (Intercultural and Multicultural) at Play for Cross Cultural Management within Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
The manifold ways of perceiving and organizing the world that are held in common by a group of people and passed on interpersonally and inter-generationally.
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Leadership Development in Kazakhstan
the shared attitudes, beliefs, practices and values that characterize a group.
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Bridging Academic and Industry Skills via Digital Collaboration: Training for International Assignment
Sets of socially transmitted ways of thinking, feeling, interacting, and communicating through shared value in traditions and customs distinguishing members of one organization from another (Hofstede, 1994 AU59: The in-text citation "Hofstede, 1994" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ; Kluckhohn, 1951 ; Lustig & Koester, 2003 ; Wohl, 2012 ).
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Deficit Thinking and Additional Language Learners in Exceptional Education: Culturally Responsive Teaching for Language Development and Acculturation
Beliefs, values, norms, language, ways of behaving, art, dance, knowledge, communication styles, and understandings of a group of people who transmit the shared ways by socializing new generations.
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Leadership Through Critical Incidents in International Schools: A Study From Across the Greater ASEAN Region
The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. Can also be the characteristic features of everyday existence shared by people in a place or time.
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Theological Response to the Culture of Necrogamy in Ibibio Land
It is the total way of life of a people which involves ideas, customs, traditions, beliefs, bahaviour, laws, norms, and indeed a total worldview of a people in a particular society.
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Challenging Traditional Programs for Providing International Educational Opportunities in Higher Education
The lens through which a person views relationships, situations, social events, and interactions based on prevalent socio- economic and political environment.
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Culture: Evaluation of Concepts and Definitions in Relation to Conflict and Peacebuilding
It is the total way of life of a people which involves ideas, customs, traditions, beliefs, bahaviour, laws, norms, and indeed a total worldview of a people in a particular society.
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Cultural Motives in Information Systems Acceptance and Use
Refers to the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group from another.
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Reflections on the Pedagogy of International Field Schools in Bali, Indonesia: The Transformative Impact of Textiles and Temples
The accumulated knowledge that people use to interpret their world and generate social behavior.
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Addressing Cross-Linguistic Influence and Related Cultural Factors Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)
A relatively stable system of shared meanings, a repository of meaningful symbols, which provides structure to experience (Kashima, 2000)
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Determine Democracy in Web Design
A set of values, norms, and ethics shared by a group of people. It distinguishes one group from another.
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A Conceptual Overview of Consumer Behavior in the Contemporary Developing Nations
The set of beliefs, attitudes, and behavior pattern shared by members of a particular society and passed on from one generation to the next.
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Localization, Culture, and Global Communication
We understand culture as the shared complex system of language, value system, norms, religion, myths, beliefs, manners, behavior, and structure which is characteristic of a society or part of it.
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Care and Cultural Responsiveness of Online College Courses: Preliminary Criteria and Best Practices
A unique set of realities based on shared knowledge, beliefs, customs, experiences, and behaviors.
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Professional Language Strategies
The values, norms, and beliefs of a society. Our culture can be considered a lens through which we undergo the world and develop a shared meaning of what occurs around us.
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Integrating Organizational Values With Workplace Performance
How things are produced and what the requirements are of that product. Culture is manifested in a variety of ways in an organization through its communication styles, leadership behaviors, and reinforcement or punishment of performance.
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Servant Leadership and Diversity: A Focus on Ethnic and Cultural Diversity
Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups. Culture often originated from or is attributed to a specific region or location.
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Inspiring Teacher Candidates to Embrace Cultural Diversity
The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population.
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Culture and Anonymity in GSS Meetings
The collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.
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Climate Change: Inclusion of Gender and Cultural Diversity in Climate Change Actions
According to van den pol is generally defined as a total of meanings and knowledge that human beings required to operate in a certain situation, for example, understanding of language, practices, rituals, views, values and norms, etc.
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Culturally Responsive Teaching: A Suggestive Pedagogical Framework
The characteristics and knowledge of a group of people are referred to as culture, which includes language, religion, cuisine, and social customs.
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Organizational Symbolism: An Overview of the Tourism Industry
The characteristics and knowledge of a particular group of people, encompassing language, religion, cuisine, social habits, music and arts. It also means the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artifacts that the members of society use to cope with their world and with one another, and that are transmitted from generation to generation through learning. Culture consists of activities such as the arts and philosophy, which are considered to be important for the development of civilization and of people's minds.
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Politeness and Etiquette Modeling: Beyond Perception to Behavior
We have not provided a deep definition of culture and are, instead, largely concerned with its surface manifestations: particularly, in the ways that politeness is reasoned about and its effects on behavior. “Culture”, then, as far as we are concerned, is a characteristic pattern of situations in which more or less politeness is required or expected by the people who share the culture, combined with a characteristic pattern of behaviors (e.g., verbal, non-verbal and extra-verbal patterns) which can be used to provide or satisfy those expectations. We largely begin with the politeness model of Brown and Levinson (1987), which claims to be culturally universal, but are extending it to provide a more cognitive grounding combined with behavioral expectations. We suspect that some aspects of culture may be characterized by common, deep-seated attitudes (e.g., Hofstede, 1987) and decision making styles or methods (e.g., Nisbett, 2003), which combine to make various behaviors more or less likely in context, but our primary interest has been in how such “deep” cultural factors may characteristically interact with politeness to yield predictable behaviors in response to directives.
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Consumer Behaviour in Developing Nations: A Conceptual Overview
The set of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour pattern shared by members of a particular society and passed on from one generation to the next.
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What is Your Teaching Style?
The ideas, activities (art, foods, businesses), and ways of behaving that are special to a country, people, or region. In this article, it is also used to refer to ways of behaving that are special to an organization.
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Culturally Responsive Social, Emotional, and Academic Development (SEAD): Three Case Studies Implementing SEAD
Sets of socially transmitted ways of thinking, feeling, interacting, and communicating through shared value in traditions and customs distinguishing members of one organization from another (Hofstede, 2001, Kluckhohn, 1951; Lustig & Koester, 2003; Wohl, 2012).
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Exploring Intercultural Awareness: International Student Mobility in China and the UK through a Non-Essentialist Lens
Values in use that have emerged over time that can be quite different from the espoused or official values of the organisation.
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The Art and Science in Communication: Workplace (Cross-Cultural) Communication Skills and Competencies in the Modern Workforce
Is the manifold ways of perceiving and organizing the world that are held in common by a group of people and passed on interpersonally and inter-generationally.
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Multicultural Urban Business Environment: Managing Cross-Cultural Problems Within Globalization
A set of shared values, understandings, assumptions and goals that are learned from earlier generations, imposed by present members of a society and passed on to succeeding generations.
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Data Mining to Identify Project Management Strategies in Learning Environments
The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others.
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Turkey's Nation Branding for the 2050s: Challenges and Opportunities
Beliefs, ideas, habits, and behaviors of a group or society that have been created .
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Reconnoitering the Fight Against Political Corruption and the Way Forward in Nigeria
The social behavior of individuals or people. In the context of this discussion, it is a shared pattern of behavior and interaction by the people concerned. One unique feature of culture is that it is learned and individuals who share the same culture maintain an identity in relations to their shared beliefs.
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Emoticon Use in Mobile Communications :-)
Variations amongst human groups, defined by their beliefs, practices, religion, arts and customs.
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Using Indigenous Languages for Enhanced Global Marketing in Tanzania
Refer to the way of life particularly the general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time in Tanzania.
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Before K and Beyond 20: The Sustainable Learning Paradigm
The shared attitudes, beliefs, practices, and values that characterize a group.
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Affective Side of Technology Incorporation in the Workplace
Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization.
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Innovation Through Diversity and Inclusion: A Roadmap for Higher Education Information Technology Leaders
The social norms in an organization that dictate what is accepted behavior, though often not explicitly stated or recorded.
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Impact of Culture on Service Failures and Service Recoveries
All physical and abstract values that are transmitted from generation to generation and that separate communities from each other.
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Value-Based Management and Responsibility in the Management of People: A Competitive Advantage for Family Business
It is the set of rules of action that identify an organization. It is the way of showing itself internally and externally. These rules are defined to align the behaviors of its members. It is shown through tangible elements (infrastructure, spaces, behaviors) and not tangible (values and principles).
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Tackling the Challenges Posed by Linguistic and Cultural Diversity in EFL Classrooms
It can broadly be defined as an organized set of thoughts, beliefs, and norms for interaction and communication among people, which may influence perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors (Ingraham & Meyers, 2000).
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The Nature and Scope of Cultural Heritage Resources Management in South Africa
Everything made by humans, including tangibles and intangibles.
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Cultural Biases in Transitional Writing Courses and Their Effect on Hispanic Students in Texas
Traditions, customs, and language(s) of the group(s) with which a person identifies.
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Implementing Self-Efficacy Through a Strengths Perspective Approach
Information and meaning that can be pass on from one generation to the other.
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Globalization and Localization in Online Settings
Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; a stable set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization.
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Does Theory Really Fit Real Life Situations?: A Case Study on the Internationalization Process of a Technological Service-Based Firm
It is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others and causes them to display more or less the same behavior in similar situations.
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The Path of a Relationship: How Life Decisions Lead to a Positive and Fulfilling Partnership
The knowledge, values, attitudes, and traditions that guide the behavior of a group of people and allow them to solve the problems of living in their environment.
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Cross-Cultural Leadership
A structure of values, beliefs, norms, symbols, traditions, customs and meanings that have been learned, adopted and shared from the past to the present, giving a society a different identity from other societies.
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Exploring Female Entrepreneurship: Addressing Some Misconceptions
The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others and causes them to display more or less the same behavior in similar situations.
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Unravelling Hurdles to Organizational Sustainability by Virtue of Sharing and Creating Knowledge
Values, beliefs that nurture trust, communication among all individuals in the organization and motivate employees. Leaders also play a role in developing these norms in order to create and sustain a learning context wherein skills development is fundamental.
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Social Interaction Technologies: A Case Study of Guanxi and Women Managers' Careers in Information Technology in China
A process of constructing shared meaning and is based on a unique human capacity for self-consciousness and awareness of others.
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Strategic Leadership in Higher Education: Adding Value and Restoring the Value Proposition
A set of discernible assumptions, attitudes, conceptualizations, and values possessed by members of a specific group that is transmitted through socialization and communication involving key symbols, narratives, stories, and a recalled past.
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Entrepreneurship and National Culture: How Cultural Differences among Countries Explain Entrepreneurial Activity
The collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others and causes them to display more or less the same behavior in similar situations.
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Culturally Determined Preferences: Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Systems vs. Live Help
This refers to a property, object, behavior, language, etc that is commonly shared by a group of people which sufficiently distinguishes them from others.
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Managerial Decision-Making Process in the Modern Business Conditions in the EU: Importance of Cultural Influence
A set of specific beliefs, customs, values and norms widely adopted in one society, that shapes the behavior of its members.
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Creating Synergy for Inter-Cultural Learning
Acquired knowledge that is used to interpret experiences and generate social behavior.
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Online Learning for All: Addressing Best Practices and Systemic Inequities
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Social Emotional Learning as a Lever for High School Student Mental Health and Academic Success: A Reflective Analysis
Sets of socially transmitted ways of thinking, feeling, interacting, and communicating through shared value in traditions and customs distinguishing members of one organization from another (Hofstede, 2001, Kluckhohn, 1951; Lustig & Koester, 2003; Wohl, 2012).
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Cross-Cultural Leadership: Managing Diversity
It is a set of norms, values, customs, and traditions shared by a group of people and reflected in human behavior.
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The Paradoxes Between Business Performance and Organizational Behavior in Colombian and Ecuadorian Companies
Socially taught shared patterns of behavior and cognitive frameworks, as well as, their comprehension and interaction, own by a group of people or society. Religion, what we wear, how we wear it, what we believe is right or bad, how we greet visitors, and so on all fall under the category of culture.
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Transformational Teacher Leadership: A Global Perspective
A collective phenomenon defined as the set of underlying assumptions, norms, behaviors, and beliefs that are shared by members of a group.
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The Holon/Parton Structure of the Meme, or The Unit of Culture
Culture’ is knowledge encoded in symbol systems in the form of ideas, processes and products ( Csikszentmihalyi, 1996 ) including in science, the arts, media, religion, and languages. Examples of ideas include scientific theories (e.g., gravity, general and special relativity, evolution) and also literary and media characters and narratives (Sherlock Holmes, Anna Karenina, Harry Potter); examples of processes include cognitive processes: writing an email, having a conversation, reading a book and in science, pasteurization; examples of cultural products include the hand-axe, the spear, the wheel, words, books, movies, songs, the printing press, the telescope, the microscope, the car, the computer and iPod. As there is no culture without biology a synonym for ‘culture’ is ‘bioculture’.
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Cultural Impact on Global Trade
The customs, ideas, and social behaviour of a particular society or an imdividual.
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Culturally-Sensitive E-Learning Practices for Career and Technical Education
Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization.
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The Impact of Technology on Organizational Learning and Leadership
The shared attitudes, beliefs, practices and values that characterize a group.
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Culturally Responsive Pathway Pedagogues: Respecting the Intricacies of Student Diversity in the Classroom
A broad concept that encompasses the beliefs, knowledge, language, lifestyle, norms, practices, skills, traditions, and values shared by a group of people.
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Promoting Academic and Life Success for Indigenous Students in the United States
The lifeways of a group of people, including their language, religion, customs, dress, foods, etc.
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Influence of the Culture
It is composed of the values, traditions, worldview, common history, geographic location, language, social class, religion, beliefs, social and political transmitted ways of thinking (Gollnick & Chinn, 2013; Nieto & Bode, 2012; Peregoy & Boyle, 2013).
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Acceptance of Branded Video Games (Advergames): A Cross-Cultural Study Spain-USA
Culture represents a set of shared values that influence social perceptions, attitudes, preferences and responses toward a given object or behavior.
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Foreign Language Acquisition, Bilingualism, and Biculturalism: A New Theoretical Avenue for Organizational Research
An integrated system of shared values, beliefs, norms, behaviors in a given society (group of people), transmitted from generation to generation.
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Privileges and Problems of Female Sex Tourism: Exploring Intersections of Culture, Commodification, and Consumption of Foreign Romance
A set of values and principles, or collective programming, which characterizes a group of people and distinguishes it from another group of people.
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Supporting Business Across Continents: Perspectives for Migrants
A complex concept that encompasses knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other practices or habits adopted by human beings as members of a society.
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Cross-Cultural Aspects of Collective Intelligence Online
Customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group; a stable set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution or organization.
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Dynamics of Culture and Curriculum Design: Preparing Culturally Responsive Teacher Candidates
The beliefs, values, social perspective, traditions, customs, and language shared within a group which is passed down from generation to generation.
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Multi-Cultural Communication is Essential for Tourism Industry: Global to Local Perspective
The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that constitute a person’s way of life.
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Effective Cultural Communication via Information and Communication Technologies and Social Media Use
The capacity of human beings to classify, codify, and communicate their experiences symbolically so that they can be available to future generations.
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Socially Responsible Culture and Personal Values as Organizational Competitiveness Factors
The totality of material and immaterial creations of mankind. The culture of an organization represents a way of working in an organization and reflects the culture of the environment in which the organization operates, expressed in the prevailing habits and criteria of right and wrong.
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Socio-Technical Challenges of Semantic Web: A Culturally Exclusive Proposition?
Consists of different value preferences that influence communication interaction and how people create meaning.
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The Opportunities for the Development of Religious Tourism in Georgia
Created by human hands, minds, and feelings. The division of culture takes place materially (the world of things) and spiritually (the world of knowledge, values, symbols).
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Multiculturalism in Teacher Education
It is all of the material and spiritual elements that play an active role in maintaining the continuity of a certain society from past to present and that are shaped by social development.
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Developing Software for a Scientific Community: Some Challenges and Solutions
by the term ‘culture’, we mean here the normal behaviour, values and assumptions that distinguish one group of people from another.
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Using Films to Teach Culture in a Flipped Classroom
Is defined as ‘a complex system of concepts, attitudes, values, beliefs, conventions, behaviours, practices, rituals, and lifestyles of the people who make up a cultural group, as well as the artifacts they produce and the institution they create’ ( Liddicoat et al., 2003 , p. 45).
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Implicit Culture Framework for Behavior Transfer
a set of traits that are shared by the community and are transmitted
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Breaking Language and Cultural Barriers: A Key to Improve Stakeholder Relationships of SMEs
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Package Communication: An Investigation on the Premiumness of Private Label Product Packages in Turkey
One of the premiumness categories including codes such as readability of the expiration date, presence of transparent window, etc. that are linked with Turkish culture.
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Ethical, Cultural and Socio- Economic Factors of Software Piracy Determinants in a Developing Country: Comparative Analysis of Pakistani and Canadian University Students
Source: Hofstede (1997): “The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.”
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A Proposition for Developing Trust and Relational Synergy in International e-Collaborative Groups
Consists of different value preferences that influence communication interaction and how people create meaning.
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Indigenous Knowledge Systems
The interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influence a human group’s response to its environment, determines the identity of a human group in the same way as personality determines the identity of an individual.
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Discursive Practice and the Nigerian Identity in Personal Emails
A people’s way of life, consisting of habits and tendencies to act in certain ways. This comprises their language patterns, values, beliefs, customs and world view.
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Diversity in the Classroom: Building Bridges and Breaking Barriers Among Minority Students
A lens through which life is perceived. Each culture, through its differences generates a phenomenologically different experience of reality. Thus, the same situation may be experienced and interpreted very differently, depending on the cultural backgrounds of the individuals involved ( Diller & Moule, 2005 , p. 5).
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Education for Women and Girls in Iraq
The beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time.
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Employer Brand Image Review and Future Strategies
Values that support the organization’s purpose, strategy, or identity. Ambler et al. and Barrow (1996 AU6: The in-text citation "Barrow (1996" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ) suggest culture is in place as a result of the employment image developed by the organization, and serves to help promote the employment image.
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Developmentally and Culturally Effective Instructional Strategies for Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Young Children
All aspects of human life such as language, education, gender, ethnicity, geography, politics, etc. that affect thinking and behaviors.
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Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, National Culture, and Online Instruction: Leading to Learning
A set of discernible assumptions, attitudes, conceptualizations, and values possessed by members of a specific group that is considered important enough to be actively transmitted to the next generation through socialization and communication involving key symbols, narratives and stories, and a recalled past.
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Intercultural Education and Training of Slovene Police Officers for the Purpose of International Missions
are beliefs, knowledge, low, morals, customs and habits that are specific and acquired by man as member of the society.
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A Human Factors View of the Digital Divide
Culture is software of the mind (Hofstede, 1997, p. 4). An individual’s mental programs are a result of the social environment where one grew up and gathered one’s life experiences. According the American Psychological Association (2008) Culture is a belief system that consists of values that, in turn, influence socialization practices, psychological processes, and organizations. Culture is also a worldview or a cognitive metaschema, influencing how a person interacts with the world, including people and technologies.
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Indigenous Knowledge Discourses in Africa: At the Intersection of Culture, Politics, and Information Science
A general, but elusive way of living that a community mutually establishes that is usually associated with being, but not necessarily traditional. Culture tends to be generally accepted and upheld as the norm by community members and the behaviour of community members is governed by such a culture.
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Factors Influencing Foreign Land Acquisition and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
It means the total ways of life of the people in a particular society. It is the sum total of man’s possession comprising language, arts, religion, technology and other attributes which are acquired by man in the society and are transmitted from one generation to another.
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How to Read Cultural Literacy Globally in Digital Age
1. The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively. 2. The ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular people or society.
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Technodiversity: Lessons Learned From Diversity Exchanges
The lifeways, values, and mores within a group of people that shape their beliefs and practices.
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Culturally Appropriate Web User Interface Design Study: Research Methodology and Results
Includes the customary beliefs, forms of expression, and material traits of a particular racial group situated within certain geographical location and within certain time.
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Consequences of Inequality and Exclusion on the Culture of Higher Education Institutions
Interactions and campus protocols that influence the student experience.
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Towards an Integral Approach of Organizations in Multi-Agent Systems
In MAS, we use the term “culture” to denote the subjective elements that are shared by a group of minds, i.e. collective interpretations, social norms, ontologies, common or shared knowledge, etc.
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Academic Integrity and International Students: Culture, Challenges, and Learning Habits
A group of shared beliefs, dispositions, principles, and behaviors bringing to life the shared aspects and the frame of references of a specific group.
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Structuring the Cultural Domain with an Upper Ontology of Culture
In this chapter, a culture is seen as an accumulation of elements produced, or integrated and possibly adapted by a cultural group